Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) researchers have found a new way to potentially inhibit colorectal tumor growth.
While the emergence of precision medicine and immunotherapy has greatly improved outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer, new approaches are still needed for patients in late stages of the disease who do not respond to these therapies. According to the American Cancer Society, patients who present with stage 4 colorectal cancer have a five-year survival rate of only 14%. Therefore, researchers are interested in finding new ways to try to inhibit colorectal tumor growth. The Prostaglandin E2, or PGE2, promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer through a microRNA, MIR675, reported researchers at MUSC in an article published online in November by Gastroenterology.
In this study funded by the National Institutes of Health, MUSC researchers revealed that mice treated with PGE2 in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer had vastly more metastatic lesions in the liver and neck than untreated mice. This evidence led them to believe that targeting the microRNA could have some therapeutic potential.
PGE2 is thought to promote tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration. To investigate how PGE2 does this in colorectal cancer, DuBois and the other MUSC investigators, who included first author Bo Cen, Ph.D., a research assistant professor in the DuBois laboratory, performed a screen on colorectal cancer cells treated with PGE2 to detect if there were any changes following treatment. Voucher funding from the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Institute paid for a portion of this project.
A microRNA is a small RNA molecule that can silence the expression of certain genes. In this case, MIR675-5p can suppress the expression of p53. P53 is one of the most well-known genes in cancer because it enables production of a protein that can put the brakes on cell division. However, cancer can be clever and find ways to suppress p53, so that cells can continue to divide uncontrollably.
The researchers next identified a potential site on p53 to which MIR675-5p could bind. Then, investigators confirmed that MIR675-5p suppresses p53 to promote metastasis. In a preclinical colorectal cancer model, mice were treated with PGE2 or a vehicle control. Mice treated with PGE2 were found to have more metastases compared to the control.
Further, tumor cells in the group of mice treated with PGE2 had increased expression of MIR675-5p and decreased expression of p53, confirming that PGE2 promotes tumor progression through MIR675-5p and p53.
Next, the researchers plan to analyze samples from patients with different stages of colorectal cancer and investigate how levels of PGE2 and MIR675-5p correlate with prognosis or response to therapy.
“Ultimately, we discovered a key mechanism by which PGE2 promotes tumor development and progression,” said DuBois. “These findings provide important preclinical evidence that microRNA could possibly be targeted in a therapeutic way to treat a subset of patients.”
Raymond N. DuBois, MD, PhD, dean of the College of Medicine, senior author