Imperial College of London Vaccine to be Tested in Uganda by December 2020

Aug 11, 2020 | Africa, Coronavirus, COVID-19, News, Popular Posts, Uganda

Imperial College of London Vaccine to be Tested in Uganda by December 2020

The Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) aligned with Imperial College of London to launch the country’s first COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial by December 2020. With the final internal processes and procedures underway, Professor Pontiano Kaleebu reports the team is authoring the protocol directing the trial associated with the vaccine under development by Imperial College London of the United Kingdom. The first phase trial will center on safety and immunogenicity.

COVID-19 in Uganda

With over 42 million people, Uganda has a good-sized population, but the cases of COVID-19 have not spread very far or wide. There are various hypotheses for this, which TrialSite won’t delve into here. According to public records, the entire nation has 1,313 cases and nine deaths. However, the fear is that the virus could spread, and the nation’s health authorities don’t want to take any chances.

Legacy of Mistrust

In a recent article in the Monitor, the local news reminded all about some of the ethical violations involving clinical trials in past years. Africans have resented any effort to unethically test subjects with foreign vaccines.

Uganda Upbeat

However, Professor Kaleebu suggests Ugandans are upbeat about the vaccine coming out of the UK. A well designed, well planned, and a well-governed clinical trial will be in the best interests of all in Uganda.

Uganda Research Sites

TrialSite introduced Uganda last year. We emphasized it’s a place to not only visit, but also watch out for as it and neighbors in central and eastern Africa emerge into the world’s trading ecosystem. With some of the warmest and friendliest people on the planet, incredible wildlife and beautiful mountains (not to mention large spectacular lakes), and one of the last spots in the world where mountain gorillas live, the powerful source of the Nile represents a core landlocked pumping heart of Africa. 

Uganda has a troubled past with serious current social-economic challenges, but portends a lively, thriving, and free-spirited future. Known from a Kingdom called Buganda, it was once part of an entire empire known as Kitara. Much later it was part of a colonial conquest and partition. Not until 1962 did the nation secure independence from the British Empire.

Clinical Trials

Last year, TrialSite reported that a total of 415 clinical trials were registered in the country with 148 active trials across therapeutic areas. Undoubtedly, COVID-19 has impacted the ecosystem. Last year only about 24 clinical trials were industry-sponsored compared to 60 trials that originate from non-government agencies, universities, and foundations. A total of 45 studies had some US government involvement—pre-COVID-19.

Clinical Research Centers

Universities and Institutes contribute tremendously to Uganda’s research growth. TrialSite News provides an example of some academic medical centers and research institutes operating in the country.

Major research centers exist, such as the Uganda Cancer Institute. 

A public, specialized, tertiary care medical facility owned by the Uganda Ministry of Health. The main facility is located in the Kawempe Division of Kampala. It is a cancer treatment, research, and teaching center affiliated with Makerere University School of Medicine, and with the Mulago National Referral Hospital, the teaching hospital for the medical school. UCI maintains an in-patient facility with a capacity of 80 beds. It sees, on average, 200 patients per day. In 2011, UCI started development for the UCI/Hutchinson Center Cancer Alliance, a collaboration between Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA; the facility opened up for patients in 2015. University of Makerere and affiliates such as its Institute for Infectious Diseases (ISI). A prestigious Ugandan institution, Pfizer contributed $11 million during its inception over a decade ago. The IDI is an advanced, forward-thinking academic enterprise with several programs including:

· Prevention, Care and Treatment

· Research

· Outreach

· Training

· Laboratory Services

· Global Health Security

Uganda Virus Research Institute

The Uganda Virus Research Institute engages in health research pertaining to human infections and disease processes associated with or linked to viral etiology. It provides expert advice, enables partnerships and communication, and serves as a center for training and education.

Lead Research/Investigator

Professor Pontiano Kaleebu, MD

Call to Action: For the rest of the overview of Uganda, follow the link.


  1. Rehema Namuddu

    I can’t risk my life in the so called testing of the vaccine. Why Uganda

    • Brandy

      Why on us in Uganda,they just want to kill African child and take our Land and minerals,remain with you vaccine our immunities are high we can beat the virus,go and try it in countries which were more affected,am pissed off leave Ugandans alone

      • Karwani

        There is a history of unethical clinical trials by the West on minorities especially in the US. Why isn’t the trial in US which has had the highest number of COVID-19 infections & deaths? This stinks to high heaven.

      • Ngerageze Emmanuel

        Why should not test on their people what’love’do they have for us I will not risk my life never. Why can’t they test the vaccine on their own population?

      • Sanya Emmanuel

        See whether the vaccine is good or 😈 doesn’t matter what matters is a have your gamets been deeped in the blood.

        • Harriet

          Wakeup Uganda, why not UK first where many deaths and Uganda?

      • JOY

        I think more research should be done on the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of Ugandans as regards the vaccine

    • H. H. Mkali

      The United Kingdom as well as the United States of America have both been severely affected by the Covid-19 “Plandemic” why not conduct the trials on their own people? Why Uganda a country which is the least affected?

      The Ugandan doctor, Pontiano Kaleebu, (fronting this scheme) is being used against the interests of Ugandans and Africans in general, he is, therefore, nothing short of a traitor.

      And the State of Uganda is also being treacherously careless to allow this project to be carried out in the country.

      • Karclie

        This is very unfair, pretending to care about Ugandans so much yet you wanna risk their lives. These guys were impacted most by covid19

        why then try the vaccine in Uganda which only has 9 deaths?? Ugandans shouldn’t be fooled this time. Wake up to this nonsense enough is enough.

      • Dinah wemphewo

        Why test Ugandans? Why not the British people. We are being fooled and used in exchange of mo eye. This professor should front his family members to be tested first.

        • TrialSite

          First thanks for visiting. TrialSIte is a global forum and knowledge exchange focusing on clinical research so we are glad you are here. It’s for you.
          We have reported that the study has started in the UK first. That is a fact. The study is occurring with over 200 people from the UK with Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Imperial College Healthcare NHS trust, etc.

          We have reached out to the Professor and requested an interview. Hopefully we can be successful.

          A key here is to understand the rationale. But based on historical data points we certainly understand the concern.
          Based on our reading of other materials Professor Kaleebu is concerned about the fact that most vaccines are actually developed on others in Europe, or Asia, etc. He gives examples such as vaccines for polio or even antibiotics used currently in Uganda are developed by others elsewhere. So there could be risks for people in Uganda if people from Uganda don’t take part in the research.

          The Imperial College London vaccine is an advanced one developed using synthetic strands of genetic code (RNA) which mimics the coronavirus. So it’s not the actual coronavirus but a synthetic version that is designed to be safe yet at the same time trigger the immune response. The first most risky clinical trial took place in the UK–not an African nation.

          Dinah what we hear based on our research that in Uganda’s academic medical establishment there is genuine concern that COVID-19 could come to the country. The stated reasons given by the government, medical/research establishment are rationale.

          However, there are legitimate concerns that should be addressed and understood. At least a couple times in the past in Uganda and some other nations in Africa (and elsewhere) clinical trials have commenced and there were ultimately complaints that informed consent was not properly managed (and that is a big deal–there must be proper disclosure of all risks); that patient enrollment efforts perhaps, in at least some cases, took advantage of patients in desperate situation to get access to affordable treatment), that in the past in at least a one to a few instances that care after the study was insufficient leaving some patients hanging, etc. We believe that were at least a couple cases where there were actually deaths. So from this perspective, we are really in no position to make any statements about alleviating concern.

          Dinah usually the study designers are ethical and don’t want any problems because it comes back hard on those trying to do the study. What happens often in the field is that the staff may not be properly trained, or researchers are under pressure and hence end up rationalizing short cuts, The explanations could be many.

          The key in good research is to follow Good Clinical Practices (GcP) and run an ethical study in line with the Declaration of Helsinki (protecting people in research). Again the premise of why Uganda (we think) is A) vaccines for world consumption can’t just be tested on Europeans for example and B) Although COVID-19 isn’t huge in Uganda there is concern among decision makers there (and elsewhere in Africa) that it could be coming and if it does and if it’s severe that isn’t a good thing at all.

          Dinah this is just an opinion of ours and it is limited. We are not insiders nor are we privy such information. We simply provide you some information for perspective–we recommend all do the homework, study up, empower yourself prior to making any assumptions and all are better off.
          Thanks for the visit: we appreciate it!

      • Kasozi

        People are getting it body will be tested to participate.participants will volunteer as far as i know.someone educate me how does a volunteer become a problem to the wider society?

      • Naluyange

        My question is how much money have they given these traitors? With Africans there has to be money involved, that’s our problem!!

    • Kasule

      There are many cases here in the UK and USA
      Test trials must start in the most affected areas such as the Western block

    • Camille Downie

      Why Uganda? Vaccines is known to cause lots of serious issues in the body.

    • Penny

      Its funny hiw the tests are dine in a country with very few cases of Covid. Why not test in countries which have had thw worst cases like the UK?
      If the virus is successful will the africans be first to get it or will it be the british to have priority?

  2. Remie Rwankote

    I am a Microbiologists from University of London part of Imperial College University. Can you allow me to volunteer during this exercise of vaccine trial in December?

  3. Musinguzi Elias

    Why Uganda not London or German?

    • TrialSite

      Well they are doing London–see below. Now when it comes to Uganda, the nation has very few cases, at least as a proportion to population.Also see more study information here. The name of the vaccine is “COVACI” and it would appear that based on recent Imperial College London News the study is occurring primarily at a West London research site. See link:

      We are not sure why Uganda was identified as a site as well but a while back we completed a high level introduction to Uganda and clinical trials so the recent news caught our attention.
      Thanks for the visit–we appreciate.
      Best Regards,

      • Donald

        Someone clarify why a country like UK with registered deaths in tens of thousands would prefer to do trials in uganda with infections under 2000 both deaths and active cases. Are we guinea pigs. Save us the pain and try it on your citizens, when it works u sell to us after all you have always robbed us since time immemorial o

        • Patience kisaky

          This is NEOCOLONIALISM, we do not need to open up wounds that we tried to cover up of our great great grand parents, to be wise try it there

    • Diana Tieman

      Good question Mr musinguzi.

      • Alice

        I understand that the initial trial has been conducted in the UK with 200 people, but what is the projected scale of the testing in Uganda? Is it also 200, or does it exceed this amount? And if it does,
        1. Why is this carried out in Uganda on a large scale and not in the UK? (the UK is clearly much worse effected at this stage)
        2. This is clearly unethical

        Please cover this information in your report/post

  4. Jolly Kabatoro

    Hope it will be safe for Ugandans

    • Mutumba Paul

      So things are so had to understand how can you start with someone who is less affected .it is like marking final exams starting with government schools which don’t have even standard it is like someone people having a deal of finishing one nation. It is wiser London to deal first with ltary

    • Bright

      Why don’t they test their vaccines on the queen and her people. Putin did it to his daughters. Why Uganda or Africa.

    • Ecweu Richard

      Please Vaccines save life.Research is done through ethical acceptance to participate.They are very expensive.Negatiivity always exists but we need to promote Positive information to make immunization successful.The West has funded immunization for Africa and controlled many immunizable diseases like TB, Measles,Polio, meningitis etc.They still support us and did it for many years ago.We request you to kindly be careful with opposing vaccination.Ebola Vaccine was opposed in DR Congo.Has it not saved People or have you had that those immunized died.Please let us believe our country scientists if they ask you to participate.I am a Pharmacist working at Mulago Specialized Women and Neonatal Hospital Ministry of Health.For God and My Country.

      • Arthur Kadmon

        What happened to victims in Northern Uganda who ended up with nodding syndrome as a result of so called trial tests from the West. Let them not dilute our strong COVID resistance in the name of vaccine trials

        • Chris Winyi

          Can we ask ourselves who chose Uganda to be a Guinea Pig of the world? Honestly, we should be careful! What guarantees are there that these Guinea Pigs would not die of corvid19?
          Uganda lives matter! U should test on ur own people in the uk!

      • Star

        Please people don’t be pressured to to trial these vaccines , don’t listen to professor so and so let them go and trial themselves. Here in the UK people are paid to trial vaccines they don’t just freely run to do it. Also they have found it hard to get people to volunteer for these trials. What they test on their people they won’t test on us who’s to know what they are injecting you with. Even in the UK they said blacks are high risk so they come under the priority to get the vaccine “really” it all sounds suspicious. Why do you guys think it has taken them forever to find a vaccine because the third world has been less affected than the western world. Therefore running trials has proven difficult for them. Africa wise up and don’t listen to so called professors make your own choices its your body not there’s.

  5. Nicola Jayne Hunt

    I think the whole of Britain should be vaccinated for covid 19 by the end of this year; vaccines will not only help to save lives, it will also help to recover the entire economy.

    • Angelique Umugiraneza

      Why Africa?

      • Saudah

        Unbelievable!!! Why Uganda when Europe including Uk have lost big numbers of people and increased number of cases catching up the virus each day?
        There is something fishy in this testing!!
        Why untested so much in a country where only 9 people have died when Uk it’s self has lost almost everything and they’re predicting in another outbreak soon? So, do you prefer your own nation to wiped out while protecting others?n

        • TrialSite

          First thanks for visiting TrialSite!
          This has become a rapidly growing news site and forum for global research. This is the topic that drives our passion and professional interests. Clinical trials have saved family members including some of our own. Research isn’t inherently bad but frankly the opposite. This particular trial is going on in London so the UK is the first to test the vaccine, not Uganda.

          As we acknowledge in the article, there has been unethical behavior in the past not only in Africa but all over the world. In fact, in the United States research sponsors have more of a challenging time recruiting African Americans, for example, to studies even though in many cases the study could be incredibly helpful and even save lives.

          But there is a hesitance, a mistrust because of past incidences and even present day health inequities and of course the legacy of racism that we all hope is gone for good but….

          But our concern is the sweeping generalizations. We think that a lot of good can come out of research–in fact we know it does. But to your point it must be ethical and add value to the community. And it is undoubtedly a healthy skepticism to ask why here?

          We called out in the article that Uganda had a low COVID infection rate. And this raises the need for TrialSite to undertake research into the background story of why Uganda was selected. We need to better understand those dynamics and enter a higher level discourse as to the rational, benefits, or costs and risks.

          Research also brings economic vitality and TrialSIte has written about the nation of Uganda and its potential. With more research comes the opportunity for local businesses to form, grow and thrive. So let’s look into the matter and understand more about what the factors were behind the decision. We are seeing many sweeping generalizations and TrialISte exists to not only empower people with information but also remind, when appropriate, the responsibility we all have to be a positive contributor on this planet. We have placed it on our research queue to delve more deeply into the site location rationale including hopefully some interviews in the future.

          Best Regards,

    • Nick Matovu

      The UK economy is a blink of collapsing, why not use this vaccine to recover theirs before they think of coming to uganda. Look if fire caught your house and your neighbor’s, you don’t go and save your neighbor’s children before making sure your family is Safe. ! As we speak UK is under local lockdown in direct areas dues to the increase of the spread AGAIN. I believe uganda is a easy target because the country has bad governess and very corrupted leadership. Will a few pounds they can accept anything.

    • Patience

      Why don’t they first use it there, we can’t risk our small third world country uganda

  6. Maria

    Hope it won’t be tested on our Ugandans!!!!!!! We don’t trust anyone here from the evil president Museveni and his followers to a person next

    • Elsa Tadeu

      I think you are short sighted. I believe you take treatments and medication from these countries. If you don’t have trust in them you shouldn’t use anything from them as you have little or no faith in them Why do you think you should benefit anything from this in future, if you don’t want to be part of it?!! See the bigger picture!!!

      • Teddy

        Ready to take part in the trial’s

      • Shafi

        True but their products have always been poison.they only treat symptoms

    • Nyangoma catherine

      Sorry thats stupidity ,foolishness and selfishness,England with the highest death rates why they want to try it onuganda/Africa?They should try it first on their pple if it works then they can try it in uganda.surely i cannot aggree with tha nosense.Ugandans should stand strong or the president and entire cabinet should test it on their famillies first rubbish.

  7. Essie Kirabo

    OK…rhis is really aggrevating. Why exactly are you testing on a country that has less than a quarter of all cases in the UK? Isn’t it cheaper for these tests to be carried our in Italy where there was tremendous death ?
    Or is this just a case of black ⚫ guinea pigs that won’t say much as they’re clearly under a dictatorship government which clearly has personal benefits from this and nothing to do with treating the masses? By the looks of things…it’s an easy murder case in the name of “vaccination trials”. There are so many other countries more suitable for rhis, but obviously you target the weak… the ones each to manipulate whose governments care less about human life but rather a sense of money. Shame on all you involved.

    • Diana Nangaka

      Am an Analytical Chemist and have been for many years and we are currently working on the Covid19 vaccine! I would love to be involved in this trial from the research and administering side. Please contact me for advice and how I can get involved to help!


      I will never trust this. Why carry on trials in Uganda/ Africa when we have very few cases compared to those that have lost thousands to the disease.
      Given our current government I wouldn’t be surprised if politics and corruption is involved.
      Don’t kill our people

    • Nyangoma catherine

      Sorry thats stupidity ,foolishness and selfishness,England with the highest death rates why they want to try it onuganda/Africa?They should try it first on their pple if it works then they can try it in uganda.surely i cannot aggree with tha nosense.Ugandans should stand strong or the president and entire cabinet should test it on their famillies first rubbish.

  8. John

    Why they want to test medicine in Uganda when their own people are dying more with Uganda having less deaths and cases. We are not lab rats!!!

    • TrialSite

      Hi John,
      They are testing in London.
      They did apparently extend a partnership in Uganda.
      TrialSite will probe a little deeper.
      Thanks for visiting.

  9. Roxy Mumbeja

    Why are the trials on Uganda. Are we one of the countries having high numbers of deaths and infections?
    Why aren’t they trying it on the US or Brazil or even Mexico or Nigeria? Why us?
    We are tired of being guinea pigs for the western world science 🙄

  10. John Savage

    I thought Black Lives Matter. I guess not.

  11. Jssanyu

    Like most commented; why Uganda? There is so much mistrust and most feel like Ugandans are going to be used as guinea pigs.
    Most people doubt the authenticity of the reported cases especially the way the govt spent money borrowed for corona virus preparedness but allocated to non-health ministries.
    I wouldn’t let any of my relatives near this. No one can be trusted. None

  12. The Kobs

    London, where Imperial College of London is based has over five million people. Why take the test to Uganda!
    I am not surprised that the current Ugandan government is happy to use the citizens as guinea pigs for money especially with the oncoming election.
    Britain should take note that Ugandans will have that in record. The Bible says there’s time for everything.

  13. Patrick Musoni

    Italy,America etc…lost more people from covid than Uganda why don’t they taste their medicine on their population?does that take rocket science to see that there is something fishy behind all these tastes. Terrible when people in authority think about money more than the lives of their people Europeans know our weaknesses they capitalize on that

    • Christine Kiganda

      Could someone from our medical research sector report on the status/progress of the Covid-19 vaccine research attempts being done by our own researchers here? Shouldn’t those be given priority and support to progress? Why are advancing the research of other countries over our own? Might not our home-grown vaccine solutions be more appropriate to our conditions and infection strains – which sometimes differ from those abroad?

  14. Michael Kijjwa

    Imperial college of London, No Thanks to your covid ‐ 19 vaccine trial in Uganda, in Dec, 2020. Ugandans shouldn’t be used as gene pigs, to risk their lives on a trial vaccine. Why don’t you do your trial of the vaccine, in one of the European countries, eg Italy, which was devastated by covid ‐19, or, take it to China or India?

    • Juni Ekat

      There is alot of community engagement needed to have the mass educated on the need for these trials because at this given point in time many people are skeptical to have a vaccine trial here in Uganda and Africa at large.
      Why not start from where the vaccine is made from anyway.

  15. Otto Stephen

    To determine the efficacy of a vaccine you requires ample size of cases. Uganda has 1,313 cases compared to 314,000 cases in UK and over 4million case in Europe compared to 1million in Africa (source: JHU) as of August 13, 2020. What’s the rationale of Uganda not UK or Europe for that matter? The history of HIV/AIDS trials in Uganda and Kenya was unethical and negatively impact local communities. Effects still effect today. Uganda and Africa should not accept these kind of trails. Yet, Africa will be last to benefit on these vaccines. Why conduct trials while not benefiting? Africa needs to stop being used!!

    • Peter Musoke

      With some of the lowest Corona infection and death rates how will the effectiveness of the vaccine be monitored? Will the participants be intentionally exposed to the virus, or are they looking for adverse effects or antibody response? If the latter, immunity still has to be proven by exposure to the virus. I agree with the previous comments. Why not test where the infections are rife?

  16. Michael Biryomumaisho

    Uganda should not be the the labaratory for the western countries please

    • Nick Matovu

      Ugandans are being trialed on? This is no good.



  17. Angelique Umugiraneza

    Why Africa? If it is so. Please do not touch a poor african person start from those africa leaders who allowed you to come there and their families.

  18. John lubega

    I don’t see the need for this vaccine. Uganda has seemed naturally protected. This might just lead to a cause of the corona disease.

    • Denis Kalyango Kyakulagira.

      Good innovation, but since the vaccine has been produced in the UK, please test it on the British since Covid 19 did more harm there than Uganda. Thanks for being kind but 1st extend your generosity to the British not Uganda.

  19. Godfrey

    The test should start with the researchers in UK & the head of Uganda Virus research institute Professor Kaleebu because they are the ones who are agitating for these clinical trials!

  20. tony ofungi

    I shall volunteer.Not if but when it works every one will be scrambling for it .

    • Okoth Rashid

      Lest we combine the colour of our skins with souls in thought, when the cure gets to be right be4 ours its a chance of a double chance of saving Ugandans first or second or whatever but it will be difficult to forget us, I’m a potential candidate if it comes to that. The world of Racism is done and now its about who u know and who knows u. For God and My country but rem God saves in Many tiny Angles. We are not Guinea pigs but ‘ when it comes to life Guinea pigs are better than dead lions when the lab report is perfect’ We embrace that first not recall our past to outweigh our future

  21. Alex

    Could you please explain how the vaccine works? Is it a live attenuated vaccine or the mRNA one talked about? I’m also wondering how they intend to achieve results considering that it is said that the covid 19 virus mutates a lot.

  22. Peter Musoke

    With some of the lowest Corona infection and death rates how will the effectiveness of the vaccine be monitored? Will the participants be intentionally exposed to the virus, or are they looking for adverse effects or antibody response? If the latter, immunity still has to be proven by exposure to the virus. I agree with the previous comments. Why not test where the infections are rife?

    • Kasule

      There are many cases here in the UK and USA
      Test trials must start in the most affected areas such as the Western block

  23. John Stephen Okiror

    We Ugandan’s are not against clinical trials, but we simply want more information as to why Uganda was chosen despite the few cases recorded in the country.

  24. Jesca Muzira

    If this vaccine, which is in its testing stage and supposedly poses no danger, why don’t you declare that you have found a vaccine ?
    Please don’t treat us as experimental guinea pigs

  25. Lighton

    I wouldn’t risk my life, they’d try countries abroad badly hit by COVID and not poor Uganda.

    • Robina MUKASA

      When it comes to help.i. fighting for our freedom from dictator president Britain keeps numb. Instead you are signing vaccine and loan agreements with a dead man.

    • Kasule

      The answer to your question is clear
      Uganda has many natural resources
      The people have to be cleared just like the red Indians
      So those who desire the country’s natural resources with its beauty may take over

  26. Peter

    Haha. Unless if you’re mad cos it’s like tasting poison and waiting to see if it will kill you. Son, “Be aware of wolves in sheep’s clothing.”

  27. Tina Mbogo

    Uganda government asked WHO money to stop the spread of Covid Whist there was no COVID ,UK was one of the donors ,I think it’ should be right to have their trails in Uganda …So where did the money go for Covid ? !

  28. Nsiimbi

    Hahaha, this is so stupid. Uganda has reported only one COVID-19 death and it was fake and political, why don’t they test on their people?.

  29. Moses J

    Take back your Trials and test them on yourselves.

  30. Buwembo Ezekiel

    UK should test the vaccine first on its own people because they have more deaths than uganda

  31. TrialSite

    For any clinical trials in Uganda recently the High Court there reinforced the guidelines for obtaining informed consent from potential study participants involved with clinical trials. The highest court there has applied a “Three-pronged strategy” based on A) The Helsinki Declaration and B) Belmont Report to ensure 1) sufficient information 2) comprehension and 3) voluntariness. As reported in Lexology by Phillip Karugaba
    1) the informed consent must be obtained on the basis of the kind of information disclosed. This means that the study sponsor or investigator must provide material information to the prospective study participant sharing the research protocol/procedure, purpose of the study, the risks and benefits, etc.
    2) the participant must comprehend the information disclosed: this means the info should be provided in an organized and coherent manner giving the participant time for questioning and
    3) the consent should be given voluntarily. The consent cannot be done by coercion or undue influence that may include an offer of an excessive or inappropriate reward for example or other overture in order to obtain compliance.

  32. Victor Musoke

    No thank you, but no. Try it is where it was manufactured. Why on earth do you have to test your creations on other people rather than yourselves. Are you afraid of trying it. It would only be fitting if you prepared your food, and ate it yourselves. Invite me not to your dinner table.

  33. Charles

    What Kaleebu is telling the world is that before using these untested vaccines on the richer parts of the world where COVID-19 has taken a hold (mainly Europe, and mainly white), that these untested medicines should be tried on the black populations of Uganda/Africa where COVID-19 has barely reached.

    Clinical trials of new medicines carry risks. There could be any number of unforeseen dangerous after-effects. The after-effects could even be more dangerous than the original targeted condition.

    Typical trials of new medicines are generally carried out on animals in laboratories even when the animals themselves wouldn’t benefit from the medicines. If the subject animals develop bad after-effects, they are destroyed and in many cases the test medicine is abandoned.

    Uganda is not classed among the countries with COVID-19. There are very few cases (thankfully) of that disease in Uganda. Is Kaleebu of the opinion that the lives of Ugandans (or black Africans) are so cheap and worthless? The whole world is campaigning for Black Lives Matter, but Kaleebu thinks otherwise! What plans has Kaleebu put in place if the clinical trials went wrong in the poor Ugandan communities? Destruction? Does Kaleebu know for sure how HIV/Aids got to Uganda in the first place?

    Please Kaleebu, don’t make that mistake for any reason. Beware the rich pharmaceutical companies. They become rich because they take every risk in developing their medicines. Losing is not their habit. Others lose.